Snapper – Grouper Makassar Strait

Species        : Snapper-Grouper
FIP scale      : Small-scale fisheries
Location       : Indonesian waters – WPPNRI 713
FIP formed   : January 2015
FIP Stage     : Stage 4

Profile for this fishery:


FIP Participants

  1. Kemilau Bintang Timur Makassar
  2. Inti Makmur Makassar
  3. Sukses Hasil Alam NusaIndo (SHANINDO)
  4. Prima Bahari Lestari
  5. Kelola Mina Laut
  6. Trans KCP Makassar (newest member)


FIP Aim and Objectives

The FIP aims to engage processors, their suppliers, and fishers groups in improving the small scale snapper-grouper fishery in the Makassar strait.



  • To conduct  study to better understand about the fishery, including to get more accurate information on fishing ground, supply chain, and how the fishery business contributes to local communities.
  • To train enumerators and local trader to record catch data using logbook.
  • To improve the availability of accurate data on catches
  • To collaborate with other institutions working on demersal fisheries issues in the country, including working together to improve the management and policy towards sustainable fisheries.
  • To facilitate Stakeholder meetings



Snapper and grouper from South Sulawesi Province are targeted both for export and domestic consumption. These fisheries are caught using hook and lines, bottom long line, set and drift gillnet. The fishing ground covers the waters of Makassar Strait and Flores Ses (in Fishery Management Area – WPPNRI 713), on the shallow reefs to the depth of over 100 m.


South Sulawesi Province region is an important producer of both snapper and grouper in Indonesia. The province total landing for snapper reached 12,955 tonnes in 2011, contributing the average of 11% from the total production of Indonesia (118,648 tonnes).  Meanwhile, the total landing of grouper in Indonesia reached 75,252 tonnes in 2011, with South Sulawesi region contributing the biggest portion (14.4%), followed by Maluku and Papua region (14.2%), Bali and Nusa Tenggara (13.6%) and West Sumatra (12%) [MMAF, 2011].


Snapper and grouper from South Sulawesi mainly comes from small-scale fisheries, using fishing boats of sizes ranging between 4 to 7 meters long, and powered by 5 to 24 HP/PK outboard engines. Fishing gear used includes handline, bottom long line and bottom gillnets. Small-scale fishers are operating on a daily basis, averaging at least 10 days per fishing trip.


The snapper is part of the family Lutjanidae, with at least 5 snapper species Lutjanus malabaricus, L. erythropterus, L. sebae, L. vittus and Pinjalo pinjalo, while the grouper is from family Serranidae, with four species identified : Epinephelus aerolatus, E. malabaricus, E. microdon and Plectropomus maculatus (Sumiono et al. 2010).


There have been several studies on snapper and grouper in Makasar Strait, including study on the deep sea snapper (Sumiono et al. 2010 and Hukom, 2007) . However, a comprehensive biological stock assessment is not available. The MMAF Decree on Estimation of Fishery Resource Potential in Indonesia put red snapper and grouper in Makassar Strait (WPP 713) as moderately exploited (MMAF, 2011).


Progress Update




  • Five Makassar (South Sulawesi) based seafood processors of snapper, grouper, and other reef fish and demersal fish, including parrotfish, and octopus, have expressed interest in developing FIPs for demersal fish (snapper, grouper, parrotfish and octopus). The first introduction meeting with these five processors was conducted in April 2014.
  • In May 2014, SFP facilitated the first FIP meeting in Makassar with the five processing companies (PT. Inti Makmur, PT.Multi Sari Makassar, PT. Prima Bahari Lestari, PT.Kemilau Bintang Timur, and PT.Kelola Mina Laut) that are interested in developing and implementing   snapper-grouper FIP in Makassar Strait and Flores Sea (WPP 713).
  • In September, work plan was drafted and discussed.





A FIP meeting was held in Makassar with five FIP participants. The meeting discussed the plan to conduct field study in some snapper – grouper landing areas in South Sulawesi to better understand the fishery including up to date information on the fishing grounds, supply-chain, existing regulations apply to small scale snapper-grouper fishery.


On 10 November 2015 a FIP meeting was held at Multi Sari office in Makassar to discuss the fishery scoping conducted from in August and September. The outputs of the meeting  were some clarification and verification on the findings, and FIP will : 1) support the catch landing recording by enumerators at the supplier facilities in Paotere areas.; 2) Training for enumerators will be provided by snapper-grouper expert;  3) FIP participants agreed to appoint Kemilau Bintang Timur – KBT) as contact point for the small-scale South Sulawesi snapper-grouper FIP

On December 2015 the enumerating protocol was introduced by the snapper – grouper expert to the candidates enumerators





  • Practical training for the enumerators on the data recording was conducted by  the snapper-grouper expert Ibu Siti Nuraini (Researcher from Center for Fish Management and Natural Fishery Conservation of MMAF) at the supplier facilities in Makassar.
  • The enumerators  have been recording the catch landing at suppliers since February.


One of the data collection stations where enumerators have conducted data recording since February, was no longer available for the enumerating process since the end of May. Five FIP participants, particularly Multi Sari Makassar, has nominated one of their suppliers for data collection, to continue the enumerating activities. As of June the enumerating process are still running normally at two facilities.


The enumerating process of South Sulawesi small-scale snapper-grouper has been running since mid-February until July 2016. The enumerators also conducted interview with some boat owners to gather data of catch-efforts including boat specifications.


The 6-months data are currently being analysed by Ibu Siti Nuraini (snapper-grouper expert) and is expected to be available  by early September.


On 21 December 2016 a stakeholder meeting of the South Sulawesi’s SSF snapper-grouper was held in Makassar, attended by 5 FIP Participants (Kemilau Bintang Timur, Prima Bahari, Multi Sari, Inti Makmur and Kelola Mina Laut), a company who shows interest to join this FIP (Sukses Hasil Alam), South Sulawesi Provincial Fishery Office’s staffs, enumerators, a snapper-grouper researcher, and SFP Team.


stakeholder meeting


The purpose of the meeting was to present brief analysis on the preliminary result of data collection from February to December 2016. There are more than 50 species of snappers and groupers were recorded. The genus of snapper including Aphareus, Aprion, Lutjanus, Pinjalo, Pristipomoides, Symphorichthys and Symphorus;  while grouper are coming from genus of Aethaloperca, Anyperodon,  Cephalopholis, Cromileptes, Epinephelus, Plectropomus, and Variola. The dominant species are Lutjanus malabaricus, L. erythropterus, and L. sebae; th dominant groupers are Epinephelus coioides, E. polyphekadion and E. malabaricus.


The FIP Participants agreed to continue data collection in 2017.





In January 31, the South Sulawesi’s small-scale snapper-grouper fishery FIP  held a meeting at the  Kemilau Bintang Timur (KBT) office in Makassar. The meeting was attended by all FIP Participants (Kemilau Bintang Timur, Prima Bahari, Multi Sari, Inti Makmur and Kelola Mina Laut). The meeting aimed to 1) provide update on the FIP implementation in 2016, and 2) inform the FIP participants on the plan to transfer the FIP into industry-led FIP. When the FIP is led by the industry, it means that they need to regularly update the FIP progress in the website by themselves and contributing budget towards FIP implementation.


FIP Participants also agree to do more data collection for the species that have most economic values and most-frequent recorded ones (based on the 2016 enumerating process), that covers data collection at supply-chain landing point and also data of Length at First Maturity (Lm).


In May 23rd, FIP participants (Kemilau Bintang Timur, Prima Bahari, Multi Sari, Inti Makmur and Kelola Mina Laut)held a FIP in Makassar to discuss 1) 2017 FIP workplan and proposed budget; 2) the criteria for possibilities of new companies interested in joining FIP; 3) the plan for data collection which include new sites, and to collect samples at the seafood processing facilities to understand length at First Maturity (Lm); and 4) develop FIP agreement to be signed by all FIP participants.


The outcomes of the meeting were the current FIP participants agreed to expand the FIP to include two new companies (PT Sukses Hasil Alam NusaIndo and PT Wahyu Pradana Binamulia) and the proposed budget to support 2017 FIP workplan was approved and the administration for FIP budget has been discussed.


It was also discussed that although this FIP is an industry-led,  SFP will continue to provide technical advise and assistance, including the coordination with enumerators and expert.


As an industry-led FIP, each company participate in FIP make a financial contribution to support FIP implementation, which covers the costs of the enumerators, fisheries advisor, travel and website maintenance. Currently, the FIP participant consists of five companies, they are Kemilau Bintang Timur (KBT), Inti Makmur, Prima Bahari, Kelola Mina Laut (KML) and Sukses Hasil Alam Nusa Indo (SHANINDO).


On the 16-17th August, training to the enumerators was conducted at the landing site, of Galesong (Takalar Regency), facilitated by SHANINDO and their supplier in Galesong. The training was led by the fisheries advisor, Ibu Siti Nuraini. After the training, the enumerators continue with data collection at the Galesong landing site until December 2017.


In November, the FIP started to collect data on Length at First maturity (Lm) at SHANINDO facility, with the assistance of the fisheries advisor. During this month, the fisheries advisor also visited enumerators to monitor the data collection process.


Jack Whalen and Blake Lee, both are from SFP, met with FIP participants and visited the local supplier at Paotere, the biggest fish-market in South Sulawesi.




January – February    


Draft report on the 2016 data collection analysis was submitted by Siti Nuraini, and was presented during the FIP Meeting on 22 February in Makassar



March – July 


Following up the 22nd Feb meeting, FIP Participants agreed to contribute to 2018 budget for FIP implementation. FIP activities started with the training of Length at First Maturity-Lm. The Lm training was divided into 2 sections, in-class training and hands-on training;  that was led by Siti Nuraini (snapper-grouper expert) and with support from SFP.


On 24th July 2018, the “in–class” training was held in Arbor Biz hotel Makassar, and was attended by 5 FIP Participants, of Kemilau Bintang Timur (KBT), Inti Makmur, Sukses Hasil Alam NusaIndo (SHANINDO), Prima Bahari and Kelola Mina Laut (KML). The training was supported by Kemilau Bintang Timur (KBT).


During 25th– 26th July 2018, the trainer visited each facility of FIP participants to provide hands-on training. Each facility appointed staffs for conducting Lm data collection in their facility.


Another snapper-grouper processing company, Trans KCP Makassar, contacted SFP and showed interest to join the FIP. This company was invited to observe the training of Lm data collection, in order to provide an opportunity to learn about FIP activities, and to introduce to the current FIP Participants. All FIP Participants welcomed Trans KCP to join the South Sulawesi small-scale snapper-grouper FIP. Further communication with Trans KCP being held with current FIP Participants.


Some pictures:


Screen Shot 2018-09-03 at 6.04.42 pm




SHANINDO and Trans KCP attended meeting for the initiation of the establishment of Indonesia Demersal Association in Surabaya. The establishment of the Association was facilitated by SFP. Total of twelve companies attended the meeting, the processors of demersal fisheries supported the idea of the establishment of the Association, an agreed to appoint small-preparatory team representing FIPs from Java Sea, Aru-Arafura, and Makassar Strait.



  • On 4th – 7th December, organized by SFP, Ms Siti Nuraini ((snapper-grouper expert) visited FIP participants’ facilities to observe the process of Lm (Length Maturity) data collection that has been conducted by each FIP Participant. Ms Nuraini also provided refresher-training and inputs to the companies’ appointed staff in order to collect more accurate data. SFP also encouraged them to collect the Lm data in a more regular way.
  • Ms Nuraini and SFP provided FIP training and how to conduct Lm data collection to the newly joined Trans KCP. 
  • On 6th December,  SFP (Agus Budhiman and Christo Hutabarat) and FIP Participants (Kemilau Bintang Timur-KBT,  Trans KCP Makassar and Inti Makmur) held a meeting with the Head of Provincial Fishery Office of South Sulawesi to present FIP progress, and FIP Participants express commitment towards sustainability of snapper-grouper fishery resources.



Click here for detailed Workplan 2018

Click here for detailed Workplan 2017

Click here for White Paper