Longline Tuna and Large Pelagics Indian Ocean FIPs

 

The Indian Ocean longline tuna and large pelagics FIP was initiated by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership, and the FIP has been led by PT Intimas Surya since January 2014. The first phase (2012 – 2014) involved 28 longliners, and the second phase (2015 – 2020) will expand to include 35 contracted vessels.

 

In March 2015,the longline Indian Ocean FIP expands to include 35 longline vessels owned by PT Tuna Permata Rezeki.

The FIPs support and contribute to the development, improvement and sustainability of the tuna and large pelagics fishery industry in Indonesia by promoting traceability; improve the availability of accurate data on catches, retained and bycatch; and collaborating with other institutions working on tuna fisheries issues in the country, including working together to improve the management and policy towards sustainable fisheries.

 

Click here for a detailed FIP led by PT Intimas Surya

Click here for a detailed FIP led by PT Permata Marindo Jaya

Indonesia National Plan of Action for Tuna, Skipjack and Neritic tuna

 


 

Description – Tuna 

 

Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), Albacore (Thunnus alalunga), Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

Tuna are the second biggest Indonesian fishery product exports, after shrimp, contributing 14% of total export value or about US$ 352 million in 2009. The main markets for tuna export from Indonesia are Japan (35%), the United States (20%), Thailand (12%), European Union countries (9%) and Saudi Arabia (6%) [MMAF 2010].

 

The management of Indonesia Fisheries are divided into eleven Fisheries Managament Areas (FMAs), of which two FMAs, covering the seas on the west of Sumatera, south of Java until south of east Nusa Tenggara are located within the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission area. Indonesia has a total of 5,8 million km2 of marine waters; the Exclusive Economic Zone (12.200 miles) covers an area of 2,7 million km2 and 2,7 million km2 is territorial waters.

 

The fishing grounds for Indonesian tuna fall under two convention areas, namely Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific Ocean.  The Western Central Pacific Ocean currently supports the largest industrial tuna fishery in Indonesia, contributing to almost 80% of total Indonesian commercial tuna production while Eastern Indian Ocean contributes to 20% of total commercial tuna catch from Indonesia (FISHSTAT-FAO 2010).

 

Maluku-Papua contributes the biggest landings of albacore, bigeye tuna, and yellowfin tuna, contributing 26% of total landings of tuna in Indonesia, followed by North Sulawesi (24%), Bali-Nusa Tenggara (16%), South Sulawesi (12%), North Java (10%) and West Sumatra (8%).

 

Indonesia has been a member of the Regional Fisheries Management Organisation, these are IOTC (Indian Ocean Tuna Convention) since 2007, the CCSBT (Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna) in 2008, and in 2013, Indonesia has became a full member for Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC).

 

The Indonesian tuna fisheries are multi-gear and multi-species and are are comprised of artisanal/small-scale and industrial fisheries.Vessels license are issued by different government levels, based of the gross tonnage: district government (vessels 30 GT).

 

The three main landing sites for the Indian Ocean tuna longline vessels are Benoa (Bali), Muara Baru (north Jakarta) and Cilacap (Central Java) fishing ports (Proctor et al., 2003).while in Western Central Pacific the main landing are Bitung, Ambon and Sorong.

 

Benoa Bali fishing port contributes more than 60% of tuna catch where the dominant catch is yellowfin tuna (IOTC., 2011). The average annual catch of yellowfin tuna reported from Benoa has also decreased since 2009, where the catch was 7,240 tonnes, in 2010 5372 tonnes and in 2011, 3008 tonnes. Typical landings of Indian Ocean longline vessels in 2012 were comprised of  bigeye, yellowfin, albacore, billfish (swordfish and marlin), and other species such as opah, oilfish, sharks, tenggiri/wahoo, mahimahi.

The Indonesian tuna fisheries face challenges, include:

  • Inaccurate, incomplete and inconsistent catch data reporting.
  • There is no data on the artisanal tuna fisheries. The current available annual catch data of tuna fisheries from the Indonesia is collected from larger vessels.
  • The existing annual catch data from capture fisheries statistic of Indonesia do not show the annual catch estimate for each species for each fishing gears.
  • Retained and bycatch data is limited or not available et all.
  • Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) catches remain a major problem faced by the tuna industry.

 

 

Description – swordfish (Xiphias gladius)

The Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is one of several important target fish of the Indonesian tuna longline vessels in the Indian Ocean, in high sea as well as within the Indonesia ZEE. It was reported that the catches of swordfish for the fresh tuna longline fishery of Indonesia may have been underestimated, especially in recent years. The quality of the data collected and reported are uncertain.

In 2012, observers onboard tuna longline vessels reported that swordfish contributed 1 % of the catch from 43 settings (the total catch of all species was 3823) and 4 % of the catch from 28 settings (the total catch of all species was 1294), with the average length of the Swordfish being 184 cm.

Started in 2004,  landing data on swordfish has been reported in the Indonesia captured fisheries statistic, where data mainly contributed by the longline vessels (table 1).

 

Table 1. Swordfish landing in Indonesia (in tonnes)
Source: MMAF (2012)
Swordfish landing in Indonesia (in tonnes)

The main challenges for this fishery include:

  • Lack of data and information about this fishery
  • Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent catch data reporting
  • lack of biological reference points to guide the management

 

Description – mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)

The main challenges for this fishery are a lack ofinformation of Mahi-mahi stock status in Indonesian territorial waters, made more difficult with the lack ofmanagament plans available to support the sustainability of the Mahi-mahi in their fishing grounds.The catches of Mahi-mahi in the territorial waters are part of multi-fisheries and multi-gear fishing operations by the artisanal/small scale and semi industrial fisheries, which not only target Mahi-mahi but also other fish, both pelagic and demersal.

 

The information related to the Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) fishery in Indonesia started to appear in the statistics for capture fishery in 2004, with a production of 1,498 t.  The latest data produced from the office of the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries was in 2011 (table 2), which showed that total production of Mahi-mahi reached 8,552 t,

 

The main landing sites of Mahi-mahi in 2011 were in the Makassar Strait and the Flores Sea, which  contributed to 27% of the total catch of Mahi-mahi in Indonesia, with 2,309 t being landed. These were followed by sites in the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean south of Sumatera, with both contributing 22 % of the total landing in 2011. The Indian Ocean south of Bali, West and east Nusa Tenggara contributed 16 %, followed by the Sulawesi Sea (16%) and the Banda Sea (4%). Two other fishing grounds are in the Ceram Sea and the Malacca strait. These contributed 1 % of the total landing in 2011.

Table 2.Mahi-mahi landing in Indonesia (in tonnes)
Source: MMAF (2012)
Mahi-mahi landing in Indonesia (in tonnes)

 

The main challenges for this fishery include:

  • No information is available on the status of Mahi-mahi  stocks in Indonesian territorial waters.
  • No managament plans are available to support the sustainability of the Mahi-mahi in their fishing grounds.
  • Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent catch data reporting.

Fisheries market

Mahi-mahi catches are for local markets and export, with the United States being the most important market. During 2011, according to the statistics produced by the MMAF, the value of Mahi-mahi was approximately IDR 80 billion (or about US$ 8 million).

Fishing methods and gears

The catches of Mahi-mahi in the territorial waters are part of  multifisheries and multi gear fishing operations by the artisanal/small scale and semi industrial fisheries, which not only target Mahi-mahi, but also other fish, both pelagic and demersal. Mahi-mahi are also caught by longline fisheries operating in the High Seas of the Indian Ocean.

The fishing gear for Mahi mahi fisheries includes handlines, longline and purse seine.
Key problems/issues

The main problems of these fisheries in Indonesia are:

  • There is no stock assessment available for Mahi-mahi, either nationally or in any of the fisheries management areas.
  • There is a consequent lack of biological reference points to guide the management
  • There are no fisheries management plans available for the Mahi-mahi fishing grounds

Description– escolar (oilfish)(Lepidocybium flavobrunneum)

One of the main challenges for this fishery is  lack ofinformation on Escolar and no data of Escolar stock status in Indonesian territorial waters, made more difficult with the lack ofmanagament plans available to support the sustainability of the Escolar in their fishing grounds.

There is no official published data on the catch of Escolar in Indonesia, therefore production and fishery status is unknown.

The 2013 and 2014 catch datas from the FIP showed that the volume of escolar was the 3rd highest after Albacore and Yellowfin tuna.

large pelagic catch report 13
Source : Intimas surya catch data

 

 

Description – Opah (Lampris guttatus)

One of the main challenges for this fishery is  lack ofinformation on Opah and no data of Opah stock status in Indonesian territorial waters, made more difficult with the lack ofmanagament plans available to support the sustainability of the Opah in their fishing grounds.

Opah (Lampris guttatus), also called moonfish, is caught by Indian Ocean longline fisheries. Opah, together with escolar, swordfish and mahi-mahi are part of the Tuna and Large Pelagics Longline Indian Ocean FIP.

 

 

Sustainability

To date, there has been no population study and little is known about this fish. There is no official published data on the catch of Opah in Indonesia, therefore the production and fishery status is unknown.